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Ash eruptions Not Jeopardize

Volcanic ash from the eruption were carried by the wind and spread quite harmless, particularly for soil and plants. Volcanic ash was in fact also have a positive impact and benefit on the other side. Not only useful as a plant fertilizer, but it can also improve soil physical properties and has the ability to bind water.

In fact, volcanic ash can also be used as a mixture of cement mixture as a construction material that is pretty good, because it can generate power of up to 150kg load unity. And this, is also likely to apply to the volcanic ash from the eruption of Mount Kelud.

This was conveyed by Dr. Ir. Gunawan Budiyanto, MP, Vice-Rector of the University of Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta (St. Louis) when presenting his research on the benefits of mountain ash Kelud, in the Land lab, Faculty of Agriculture, Integrated Campus in St. Louis. Her research is also an activity of a series of events in St. Louis Disasters Abu Mount Kelud, which has been conducted since Tuesday (18/2) until March 2014.

ash research kelud

See also: http://www.whatcausesearthquakes.com

According to Gunawan, benefits or positive impact of the volcanic ash was known after he and his team conducted a study of volcanic ash from the eruption of Mount Merapi in 2010. Thus, the history of the Merapi volcano research results will be repeated again in the volcanic ash from the eruption of Mount Kelud. “The difference is only one, ash Kelud was finer size than Merapi ash. Abu Kelud was the size of the fine as clay or clay with a diameter below 0.002 millimeter, “he said.

Gunawan also said that the ash Kelud it becomes finer because he cover longer distances, which is about 200 kilometers more. In addition, because it is more subtle, sand content is not carried on the wind. So from that, ash Kelud own advantages over Mount Merapi ash utilization. “Abu finer it easier to bind water. Thus also, the time required for processing into fertilizer plants, and materials to improve soil properties will be shorter. Because he had been separated from other materials, such as sand, “he said.

Agriculture Lecturer UMY then continued in more detail the results he gets out of the ashes of Mount Merapi. According to him, the positive influence of volcanic ash that could be seen from three sides, namely in terms of chemistry, physics, and civil engineering. In terms of the chemical can be known that volcanic ash contains considerable mineral reserves.

“Even the possibility also contains magnesium and serum that could be a source of nutrients for agriculture. But earlier, it had experienced lapukan ash, which is the process of releasing the elements contained in volcanic ash, so regardless of the primary element. Then the new element that could be used for agriculture, “he said.

Then in terms of physics, this volcanic ash has its advantages can improve soil and water-binding properties, or can improve adhesion of soil. Thus, if used in sandy soils will easily absorb water. “While the civil engineering can be used for construction materials, as well as composite material for cement mixture. Mix grout with volcanic ash can reduce the material of the cement itself to 10 percent. And the resulting mixtures are also quite nice, until he could have the power load of 150kg unity, “he said.

As for the study of volcanic ash from the eruption of Mount Kelud alone, according Gunawan will first be examined on the distribution of ashes, the physical properties of texture or particle diameter distribution of the soil, its ability to store water, and measuring the pH or acidity level. “Is the pH is about 7 or not. Because yesterday we measure pH of about 5 and a half, and that means it does not interfere with the plants. So we also hope that the ashes of Kelud can also be used for things that are useful, “he said.

Another thing which is also the advantages of this is ash Kelud Kelud volcanic ash from more humid, because he is hygroscopic or readily absorbs moisture environment. Additionally, too much iron mineral content, and water content it contains in dry conditions could reach 8 to 10 percent. “This means that Kelud ash can be used to enrich the soil and agriculture.

Kelud ash also contains Fe (iron), Mn (manganese), Si (silicate), Al (aluminum), Ca (calcium), K (potassium), and P (phosphorus). So this ash when it becomes fertilizer, can be a long-term backup. And the plan, we will make this Kelud ash as research material for the manufacture of fertilizer pellets, “he said.

The research carried out since Monday (17/2) this involves 14 teams, consisting of Agriculture, Civil Engineering and Mechanical Engineering. As for the ash samples Kelud was taken specifically from over the tiles with a specific gravity of 2.8 g / cm3. And this research is also likely to take about 2.5 years, because it also involves research in the field of civil engineering and mechanical engineering.

Mountain of Fire and Disaster Management Tips

Volcano erupt as a result of magma in the earth were pushed out by a high-pressure gas or due to the movement of tectonic plates, pile the pressure and the hot liquid magma. Earthquake kit the explosion brought ash and rock that burst with a bang, while the lava can flood the surrounding area. Volcano could cause casualties and huge property in the area radius of thousands of kilometers and could even affect the climate on earth is round, as happened at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines and Mount Krakatau in Banten Province, Indonesia. Results of volcanic eruptions include:

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  1. Volcanic gases are gases emitted when a volcanic eruption. Gases released include Carbon Monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen (N2) which is harmful to humans.
  2. Lava is a very high temperature magma fluid that flows to the surface through volcanic crater. Lava dilute able to flow away from the source following the river or the valley, while viscous lava flows not far from the source.
  3. Lahar is also a threat to people living in the slope of the volcano. Lahar is a flash flood on the slopes which consists of a mixture of volcanic material sized lump of clay till. Lava can be either hot or cold lava lava. Hot lava from the eruption of the volcano which has a crater lake, where the water of the lake gets hot and then mixed with the material out of the mouth of the eruption and the mountain. Cold or raining lava lava eruptions occur due to material mixing with rain water around the mountain and then make mud viscous and flows from the mountainside. This sludge can be hot or cold.
  4. Hot cloud is the result of volcanic eruptions of the most dangerous karenatidak no way to escape the heat clouds except to evacuate before the volcano erupted. Hot clouds can be a stream of hot clouds, blowing hot clouds and pyroclastic fallout. Hot clouds of material flow is a major eruption cloud hot, flowing turundan finally settles in and around the river and valley. Blowing hot cloud is a cloud of small eruptions hot material, disseminated by wind with a speed up to 90 km per hour. Dropping hot cloud is a cloud of hot material large and small eruption that was brought up by the great strength of the eruption. Large-sized material will fall around the peak, while the fine would fall in the tens, hundreds and even thousands of kilometers from the summit because of the influence of wind gusts. Hot clouds can cause severe burns to exposed body parts like the head, arm, neck or leg, and also cause shortness of breath until it can not breathe. This is commonly called “wedhus trash”.
  5. Volcanic ash eruption is a very delicate material. Due to the impact of wind gusts could be felt hundreds of kilometers away.

While the impact to the surrounding community, among others:

  1. respiratory problems
  2. difficulty vision
  3. Pollution of water sources clean
  4. electrical storm
  5. Interruption of work machinery and motor vehicles
  6. damage to the roof
  7. Damage to fields and the environment
  8. Damage to infrastructure such as roads and airports

To avoid fatalities from volcanic eruptions is necessary preparedness measures in the face of volcanic eruptions. Action should be taken divided into 3 main action; preparatory actions, the actions during an eruption, eruption action.

A. Preparatory Actions before the eruption of the volcano

Some of the preparations to be made in the face of volcanic eruptions, among others:

  1. Recognizing the signs of disaster, volcanic character and ancaman- threat;
  2. Make a map of threats, recognize the threat area, a safe area;
  3. Establishing early warning systems;
  4. Develop community radio to disseminate information about the status of the volcano;
  5. Observing and understanding the volcano Prone Area Map issued by the competent authority;
  6. Disaster response planning;
  7. Preparing paths and refugee camps are ready with the basic necessities (water, latrines, food, first aid) if necessary;
  8. Preparing basic needs and important documents;
  9. Monitor information provided by the volcano observation post (coordinated by the Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation). Volcano observation post usually communicate the development status of the volcano via radio communication.

B. Measures eruption of volcano

Which should be done in case of volcanic eruptions, among others:

  1. Avoid areas prone to disasters such as mountain slopes, canyons, dry river flow and lava flow area;
  2. Avoid the outdoors, protect yourself from the ashes of the eruption;
  3. Sign Emergency protected space;
  4. Prepare yourself for the possibility of aftershocks;
  5. Wear clothing that can protect the body, such as long-sleeved shirts, long pants, hats and other;
  6. Protecting the eyes from dust, if any use eye protection such as goggles or anything that could prevent the entry of dust into the eyes;
  7. Do not wear contact lenses;
  8. Wear a mask or cloth to cover the mouth and nose;
  9. When downs of volcanic ash try to cover her face with both hands.

C. Measures volcanic eruption

Which should be done after the occurrence of volcanic eruptions, among others:

  1. Stay away from areas affected by ash
  2. Clean the roof of the ash heap because of the weight can damage or tear down the roof of the building
  3. Avoid driving in areas affected by ash falls because it could damage the engine, brakes, gearbox and ignition.

The action is also poised expected no casualties again as happened in Mount Merapi . Remember to always pray to Allah SWT. Because of Him we seek and trust. Hopefully useful

Preventing and Tackling Natural Disasters

A.    Flood

Flooding is the overflow of river flow due to water exceeding the carrying capacity of the river, sehinngaa overflow and inundate the plains or lower areas in the vicinity. Flooding a problem if the flood impact damage or negative environmental impact manusai, among others: earthquake kit

  1. damage to infrastructure
  2. Tergangguanya human activity and economic activity
  3. Decreased quality of life

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1.      Factors leading to flooding

  1. The influence of human activity: deforestation, settlement
  2. Natural conditions are fixed (static): geography, topology concave, streams
  3. Natural events that are dynamic: high rainfall, silting of the riverbed, the damming, land subsidence or subsidence

2.      Reduce the risk of flooding

  1. Physical activity (structure): construction of dams, dikes on the river banks, canals, construction of interconnection, polder development, and search the river
  2. Nonstruktur activity: management of flood plains, land conversion and water upstream, flood prevention
  3. The combination of structure and nonstruktur efforts

3.      Overcoming flood

  1. Flood preparation measures
  2. Actions during floods
  3. Post-flood effort

 

B.     Landslide

Landslides are a form of erosion that the transport or transfer of land occurred at some time in larger volumes. Common symptoms occur landslides:

  1. Cracks in the floor and walls of the building
  2. Ambles part of the flooring construction
  3. There are big mark on rock slopes
  4. Tilt trees
  5. The emergence of water rembasan
  6. River water level rose a few centimeters and river water becomes turbid suddenly
  7. The collapse of part of the land

 

1.      Factors leading to landslides:

  1. Slope angle increases for new construction
  2. Increased water content
  3. The loss of vegetation by fire
  4. Changing material slope
  5. Vibrations caused by earthquakes
  6. Extra load by rain

2.      Reduce the risk of landslides

  1. Survey and mapping of areas vulnerable
  2. Installation of signs
  3. Regulation of land use
  4. improvements in communications
  5. community education
  6. Monitoring and warning

3.      Overcome the Landslide

  1. Menetahui and avoid disaster-prone areas
  2. Understanding the actions in the event of post-disaster and landslides

 

C.    Tsunami

Tsunami is a term for the giant waves that move quickly and suddenly, caused by shifts in the seabed. The signs of impending tsunami:

  1. there is a strong vibration that can be felt around the beach
  2. after the tremor subsided, the sea water at the beach at low tide suddenly
  3. tsunami would come approximately 15 minutes after the earthquake
  4. The first wave came not too big, and the next is dangerous
  5. pay attention to the behavior of animals

 

1.      Reducing the Risk of Tsunami

  1. shoreline protection
  2. early warning system
  3. education and learning
  4. partnerships
  5. prone area mapping and evacuation
  6. post disaster preparation
  7. task force handling disasters

2.      Overcoming Tsunami

  1. determine areas prone to tsunami
  2. understand the actions of preparation, ahead, when they occur, and post-occur

3.      Rescue and Recovery

  1. Government assistance from the community and other parties
  2. priority in recovery

 

D.    Earthquakes

Earthquakes are genuine jolt of earth that comes in earth, propagate through the surface, and penetrate the earth. The most often used to measure the magnitude of a quake was magnitude.

Laingkungan forms of damage caused by the earthquake:

  1. Damage to the environment fasillitas
  2. Amblesnya ground
  3. Menghasilakn sea earthquake tsunami

 

1.      Reduce the risk of earthquakes

  1. Mapping the earthquake
  2. Monitoring earthquakes
  3. estimating earthquake
  4. Illumination of the earthquake

2.      Overcome earthquakes

Measures to cope:

  1. Know the earthquake-prone areas
  2. Observing animal behavior
  3. Understanding the actions before, during and after an earthquake
  4. Rescue and recovery

Actions to be taken:

  1. Evacuation and set up shelters for victims
  2. rescue
  3. Providing medical assistance
  4. Providing sanitation, water, food, and drinks
  5. Providing emergency education
  6. Conducting psychological recovery of the victims
  7. Repair and reconstruction of buildings, facilities, and other facilities.

E.     volcano erupts

The nature of volcanic eruptions is divided into two, namely effusive (erupt slowly) and explosive (meleeetus is explosive). Materials issued when the mountain erupted steamy ash, sand, rocks, gravel small, liquid-liquid silicate, solfatar, carbonic acid, and mofet. Signs of volcanic eruptions:

  1. An increase in temperature in the area surrounding the crater
  2. Simber water sources dry
  3. Frequent volcanic earthquake
  4. Often the sound of thunder
  5. The fall in the animals from the top of the mountain foot area

Environmental damage has occurred:

  1. Arise many victims
  2. Scattered volcanic dust that can endanger air
  3. Destruction of agricultural land
  4. The destruction of all material
  5. forest fire
  6. The drying up of water sources
  7. Damage to the environment

 

1.      Reduce the risk of volcanoes

  1. Harnessing volcano
  2. Not exploit volcano
  3. Understanding the danger of volcanic eruption

2.      Addressing catastrophic volcanic letuasan

  1. Prior to the eruption
  2. When there is a volcanic eruption
  3. When the eruption
  4. After a volcanic eruption

Steps To Prevent The Impact Of Volcanic Eruptions

And in general, according to Director General of Disease Control and Environmental Health (P2PL) Ministry of Health, Prof. dr. Tjandra Yoga Aditama SpP (K), MARS, DTM & H, DTCE, through its press news, there are six diseases to watch out for as a result of volcanic eruptions.

Sixth disease is an upper respiratory infection (ARI); lower respiratory tract infections (pneumonia and bronchitis); allergy, inflammation or irritation of the eyes; allergy, infection or irritation of the skin; digestive disorders; and worsening of chronic diseases, either because the immune system being down or due to stress or negligent taking medication.

Read more: earthquake kit


“In general, the impact of the volcanic eruption is a volcanic dust and gases that can cause irritation to skin, eyes and respiratory tract,” said Prof. Tjandra.

To prevent that, according to Prof. Tjandra, the community should apply the following seven steps:

1. Avoid going out if you do not have a purpose;

2. When forced out of the house, use protection such as helmets and masks;

3. Close the water supply or open dug wells and open water reservoirs from being exposed to dust;

4. Wash thoroughly all foods, fruits, vegetables;

5. Seek treatment to health care facilities when any health complaints such as cough, shortness of breath, irritation to the eyes and skin;

6. For people who have chronic diseases, ensure regular medication should always be consumed;

7. Always clean and healthy living behavior.

How Earthquake in Nepal Could Happen?

Earthquake kit list – Saturday (24/4) before noon in Nepal, a piece of slab beneath the Earth’s surface shifted. As a result, the shift shock wave release on the explosion as 20 thermonuclear weapons and a ‘rip off the Kathmandu Valley.

In Geological sciences 7.9-magnitude earthquake that destroyed ritcher Nepal and the worst in the last 81 years like clockwork spinning. Most powerful earthquake in the region last occurred in 1934.

According to the Nepal National Society for Earthquake Technology. Could have predicted some time earlier. Therefore, the area known as the Indus-Yarlung sewing zone experiencing ritcher scale 8 earthquake every 75 years.

How Earthquake in Nepal Could Happen?
The reason is the irregular movement of the fault line that runs along the border in southern Nepal, where the Indian plate collided with the Eurasian plate between 40 million to 50 million years ago.

“Collisions between plates in India and Eurasia is a showcase for geology. For slab India was pushing its way northward toward Asia about five centimeters per year. Geologically it is moving very fast,” said the expert of Geophysics at the University of Hong Kong, Lung S .Chan.

Because of constantly moving, so that these plates cause friction to build up energy like a ‘crust’ fragmented, said Dr Chan, who is also comparing this earthquake like the explosion of thermonuclear weapons.

According to him, Nepal is prone to earthquakes, not only because the big buck that occurs due to the collision of tectonic, but also the type of fault lines in the country.

Normal course of events, when there is friction would create a normal room when the ground cracks, while in Nepal one tectonic plate buck was actually standing above the others and includes the most.

The most visible of these is the impact of the Himalayas. Slab of constant friction between India and Eurasia pushed up to a peak altitude of about one centimeter per year.

“In the case of the quake, the friction is moving about two meters,” said Hongfeng Yang, a seismologist at the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Despite the regularity appears from a severe earthquake in Nepal, it is impossible to predict when another one will occur. However, historical records and modern measurement of tectonic plate movement shows that if pressure builds in the region in a manner that is generally consistent and homogeneous,

Thus, the region could be severe earthquake is predicted to occur every four to five decades, said Dr. That.

STEP SAVING If HAPPENS DISASTER

Natural disasters often cause casualties, and therefore the necessary steps – rescue measures in times of disaster, such as:

  1. Rescue action to be taken

If a natural disaster has occurred, the first step to be taken is self-preservation. Some rescue measures in times of disaster, including the following:

a. Earthquake rescue

  • Be calm and do not panic in order to perform the rescue act of self and family well
  • Immediately out of the house if it was in the house. Look for a clearing place to avoid falling trees or buildings which may collapse.
  • When inside a building or building high-rise, is likely to come out very difficult and takes a long time, actions to be taken are under a desk or place to refrain from debris or falling objects – objects.
  • When on the road, reduce the speed of the vehicle or pull off the road, but try stops away from trees, billboards, or buildings in the surrounding streets.
  • While at the center of the crowd, keep away from the jostling to get out the door. Better find a safe haven from debris or falling objects – objects. Earthquake emergency kit

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b. How tsunamis

  • In the event of an earthquake, then the low tide arrived – arrived, immediately ran away from the beach and looking for a place higher because of the possibility of tsunami will occur
  • If an earthquake occurs at night with great power and possibility of electricity and telecommunication channel will be disconnected. If it happens in an emergency immediately seek storey building and went up
  • The government put a tsunami early monitoring equipment on the beach. If an earthquake happens and is accompanied by a tsunami, atat it will emit a siren. When you hear the sirens immediately move away from the coast looking for a high dn

c. During floods

  • When floodwaters dudah entered the house, it is better to evacuate to a safer place.
  • Note the cleanliness of the place, food, and drinks. During floods easily germs spread and infectious disease.
  • Alert to the surrounding environment in order to avoid things – things that are not desirable. Eg electric shock.

d. Reduction Due to Fires

  • Try not to be too much out of the house to avoid the smoke.
  • If out of the house, use a mask to reduce the adverse effects of smoke on our breathing

2. Evacuation of Wounded – Luka to Hospital

Natural disasters occur suddenly – arrived sometimes caused no injuries – injuries or died. Victims who suffered injuries – cuts should be evacuated to a hospital for medical treatment. For the survivors were evacuated to a safe place, while the victims who died, was evacuated, and was buried. Evacuation is done by the local community who are not affected by the disaster, volunteers, rescue teams or of TNI

3. Victim Assistance Needed

Disaster victims in need of assistance. The help is needed, among other things, such as food, drink, clothing, blankets, tents – tents, or a tool – a tool school. Such assistance may come from central government, local governments, local communities, people who are from other regions, non-governmental organizations, social agencies or from other countries. Help may be goods – goods or psychiatric or mental assistance to be able to face this disaster with patience and strong in order to re-arrange his life. Such assistance can be done in several ways, for example

a. Directly provided to victims

b. Through social agencies

c. Through agencies – other institutions open relief center, eg television station

4. Provision of Post-Disaster Recovery Assistance Conditions

Natural disasters create social and economic life of society becomes chaotic. Moreover, if the houses and buildings – other buildings suffered severe damage, markets, offices, or schools – schools that suffered damage can disrupt economic activity and of learning – teaching. In order for the condition to recover, governments and communities together – both trying to give the necessary assistance for the recovery.

Rain Can Be Predicted, But Can Also Earthquake Predicted?

Indonesia is located in the cluster of volcanoes and above the confluence of two continental plates are particularly vulnerable in an earthquake. Often earthquakes can occur without our knowledge.

Many scientists can predict the rain, can also predict earthquakes?

Earthquake kit list – The model that arguably tempting to predict the occurrence of earthquakes is normally used statistical models to predict the weather. Many are beginning to try to predict approximately when an earthquake will occur.

Rain Can Be Predicted, But Can Also Earthquake Predicted?

The largest trial ever conducted. Geologists predict earthquakes will occur at Parkfield, California in 1994, and set the instrument to capture future earthquake. It turned out that the estimate was wrong!

The actual earthquake just struck in 2004. One of the biggest hurdles is that geologists still do not understand how earthquakes start and stop.

But now there has been progress in predicting earthquake aftershocks and man-made, such as that associated with the waste water injection wells (as used in fracking).

This time is not yet able to predict earthquakes. As people who live in earthquake prone areas that we can do is to be more alert and perform various actions on the prevention of disasters.

As build earthquake-resistant buildings, installing sirens earthquake detection, and perform safety measures when it feels an earthquake occurs. It was that we could be safe from the threat of earthquakes.

Italian earthquake in August 2016, Turns It causes!

In late August 2016, an earthquake casualties occurred again. Best earthquake kit this time the earthquake occurred near the town of Norcia, Italy to the magnitude of Mw 6.2 earthquake (moment magnitude). Italy earthquake occurred in the epicenter 13 172 42 714 ° N ° E with a depth of 10 km. Until I write this article, there were already 159 people confirmed dead and many who have not been found.

Italy earthquake is not the first time, in 2009, earthquakes have hit Italy in the city of L’Aquila that killed 300 people. In fact, after the earthquake of L’Aquila the Italian government made a mistake by arresting scientists failed to predict earthquakes because earthquakes. L’Aquila earthquake I have ever written in the article if Earthquake Who’s Wrong? , But this time I do not want to write about it, this time I tried to write a little about what causes earthquakes today .

the history of earthquakes in Italy

Order Italian Geology and Earthquake Causes

Grow zone between the continental shelf to the continental shelf allows the formed fracture around the central region of Italy as in the show on the map geological structure.In order geology, State Italy globally are on track to grow zone between the micro Adria microplate subduksi under the Eurasian plate and the zone collision ( collision ) between the plates the Eurasian continent with the African continental plate. Collision zone between the continental shelf with the formation of continental plates causes Alpinnines mountains in Italy.

Based on the analysis of the USGS, the earthquake causes of Italy is attributable to the seismic source mechanisms in the form of Normal Fault trending Northwest – Southeast in the mid-mountains of the Apennines.

History Earthquake in Italy

Earthquake Italy taggal August 24, 2016, is not the first deadly earthquake. Historically, Italy has a lot of land seismic events that are so deadly.

USGS noted that Italy had experienced an earthquake in September 1997 a magnitude 6.0 Mw position 50 km Northwest earthquake this August 24, 2016. The 1997 quake killed 11 people, injured 100 and damaged about 80,000 homes in the Marche and Umbria. An earthquake in 1997 was the successive earthquakes occur, the people there call Umbria-Marche seismic sequence. Earthquakes are berderetan as much as 8 earthquakes with a magnitude above 5 MW which occurred within 2 months (September to November) in 1997.

In April 2009, an earthquake with a Mw 6.3 magnituod within 45 km to the southeast of the quake’s August 24, 2016. The earthquake occurred in the town of L’Aquila , killing least 300 people, injured over 1,000 and as many as 55,000 people without homes or more.

The history of earthquakes in Italy from 1989 – 1998. The left map shows earthquakes greater than 2.4 and the right map shows the focal mechanism of earthquakes shallower than 40 Km (Eugenio Carminati, et.al, 2010).

If we look at the map above, it can be seen that, an earthquake occurred in many countries around the central region of Italy. From mechanism focal on the right also shows that the seismic source mechanisms bumii that frequently occur in the form of a normal fault ( Normal Fault ).

Hopefully the article about Earthquakes Italy in 2016 could increase knowledge of natural disasters for the reader.

Recording earthquake on 3 components seismometer

See the sources of earthquakes, the wave propagation of earthquakes up to the recording waveform is a process that is learned by people Seismology. Seismology science including science relatively young, new development began in 1660 when Hooke discovered a relationship between the voltage of the strain that will be related to the wave propagation of earthquakes in the earth. California earthquake insurance on this occasion I do not want to discuss about the history of seismology, seismic sources and seismic wave propagation, but I want to say little about the recording process using seismometer wave sensor which has three components.

The development tool seismometer first one started in 1875 when Filippo Cecchi find a way of recording earthquake waves using a pendulum without damping over time. Subsequent developments in 1898 when E. Wiechert seismometer tool wear develop damping viscous and can record the entire duration of the earthquake (Afnimar, 2009). Currently, the development tool truly extraordinary seismometers, all seismometers now using tools and digital systems (Afnimar, 2009).

Earthquake waves

As I said in writing benefits for the people of earthquake waves and benefits of earthquake waves for tomography . When an earthquake occurs, will appear wave body wave (body wave) wave form P (primary / pressure) and Wave S (secondary / shear) Horizontal Vertical SH and SV. Wave Interference The agency will produce the form of surface waves Love waves and Reyleigh.

Body P wave propagates as a longitudinal wave or pressure wave, the direction of movement of the particles of soil / rock as a result of this wave in the direction of wave propagation gempannya. S Body wave propagates as a transverse wave or waves of string where the direction of movement of particles of soil / rock perpendicular to the direction of propagation of earthquake waves. S wave is divided into two waves S Horizontal (SH) which terletah on the horizontal plane and S wave vertical (SV) located in the vertical plane. SH and SV wave is moving simultaneously but both of these waves are slower than P waves

Love surface waves generated due to the reflected SH wave interference, so the direction of the particle and wave in the horizontal direction perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation (similar to the SH wave). The second surface wave is Reyleigh waves, these waves are formed due to the interference reflected wave P and SV, in the form of an ellipse partikelny motion for a combination between the direction of motion of a particle wave P and SV.

On recording seismometer sensor 3 Components

Seismometer 3 component is a seismometer which has 3 sensors and can record seismic wave waves coming from different directions. Component seismometer sensors on three components include:

  1. Sensor Components of Vertical Up – Down (Up-down, UD); These sensors record seismic waves which direction the particles move in an upward direction under.
  2. Sensor Components Horizontal North – South (North-South, NS); These sensors record seismic waves which direction the particles move in the direction of the North – South or its representative in this direction.
  3. Sensor components Horizontal East – West (East – West, EW); These sensors record seismic waves which direction the particles move in the direction of East – West or its representative in this direction.
The basic principle of the 3 components seismometer Sensor

The basic principle Sensor 3 components seismometer (Afnimar, 2009)

When the earthquake wave P, SH, SV, Love and Reyleigh seismometer 3 components, not all components will detect the seismic waves. Detected least earthquake waves depend on the direction (azimuth) of the arrival of seismic waves. Some of the pictures below that I took from the book written by Afnimar Seismology, Ph.D. (lecturer ITB) can help us to understand the process of recording of earthquake waves at seismometers 3 on the sensor components and which components would be recorded earthquake waves when an earthquake happening somewhere.

In addition to all three of these components, known components of radial and transverse components. Radial component is a horizontal component in the direction of wave propagation and the transverse component is a horizontal component perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. The 3 components seismometer tool installed in earthquake observation stations such as BMKG Stations Mata Ie, Banda Aceh as in the picture on the side.

Figure 1. Illustration of the particle when bypassed wave direction P
a. Seen from the side
b. It appears from the above (Source: Afnimar, 2009)

In Figure 1 above can be seen bottom seismic waves heading to station observers from 45º angle from the north, the angle of the wave of the monitoring stations often also called the angle of back azimuth . P wave particle motion that comes with the “forward-backward” will be recorded at the sensor component – North South, East – West and Top – Bottom. But if the wave is coming out of the corner 90º (east), then the P waves are only recorded on the sensor component the East – West, Up – Down and is not recorded on the sensor component – North South due to the direction of motion of particles as a result of the P wave in the direction of wave propagation.

Figure 2. Illustration of direction when the particles pass SV wave
a. Seen from the side
b. It appears from the above (Source: Afnimar, 2009)

SV wave has a top particle movement under the direction of propagation as shown in Figure 2, are recorded on the same components as the P wave, which is recorded on the sensor component of the North-South, East-West and Up-Down. If the angle of attack that the earthquake was 90º (east) then recorded also equal to the P wave

Figure 3. Illustration of the particle when bypassed wave direction SH
a. Seen from the side
b. It appears from the above

SH wave propagation shown in Figure 3, the direction of movement of the particles left-right direction of wave propagation are recorded on the sensor component of the North-South and East-West and is not recorded on the Up-Down sensor components. However, if the direction of the waves coming from the 90º (east) then the SH wave sensor component only recorded on the North-South.

Love surface wave which propagates on the surface has the same direction of motion of a particle with SH wave that is the left-right direction of wave propagation. A wave of love as the image sensor 4 will be recorded on the North-South component and the East-West and is not recorded on the Up-Down sensor components. If gelompang love coming from the east, then it’s just a love wave sensor component recorded on the North-South.

Figure 1. Illustration of the particle when bypassed wave direction Reyleigh
a. Seen from the side
b. It appears from the above (Source: Afnimar, 2009)

Reyleigh surface wave which is a merging between P waves with wave SV so that the direction of movement of the particles back and forth and up and down and moving elliptic. These waves are recorded on the sensor component of the North-South, East-West and Up-Down. However, if this Reyleigh wave coming from 90º (east) are recorded on the sensor component of the East-West and Up-Down.

Examples of recording results using three component seismometer sensor can be seen in the image below. The picture I took from www.iris.edu but I did not get any information from which direction the arrival of seismic waves.

Hopefully this article on the recording earthquakes in 3 components seismometer is beneficial for students / i and the general public who want to understand how a seismic wave as a result of natural disasters earthquakes recorded by seismometers tool.

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