Hydrological systems, forests and disasters are elements that are interrelated with one another. But the past few days, the people of Aceh and environmental activist back busy and made frantic by the Aceh government policies who want to transfer my originally functioned Aceh forest protected forest into production forests. The total area of protected forests would transformed to enable the estimated area of 55,000 hectares (cmiiw).
A few months ago, I wrote about the story of Forest and Water on Easter Island . In the article I described how forests function in controlling the hydrological system and then harvested by local communities (Polynesians) to transport-Arca Arca they makeand raced. Condition 400 AD Polynesian society very different from the Polynesian community in 1722 when Admiral Roggeveen discovered the Easter island. The state of the people of Aceh in 2013 may also be different from the people of Aceh in 2030 when the transfer function of forests in Aceh strongly enforced. What are the risks if the forests of Aceh truly transformed to enable or even eliminated? Here’s the explanation.
Hydrology and Forest Systems
Turnover of water in land, sea and atmosphere in the form of a continual cycle of a cycle called the hydrologic or water cycle on Earth. Hydrological cycle that occurs on Earth was engineered by the heat of the sun causes the water in the ground (lakes, rivers, ponds, reservoirs, etc.) and in the sea water evaporates. Inland waterways and the sea evaporates and rises into the atmosphere and then condensed into clouds saturated with water vapor which then falls back to earth in the form of rain and snow.
What causes earthquakes facts – Forest and Disaster HydrogeologyWater that falls into the earth in the woods, there are several possibilities with water, partially flows over the surface as run-off and others almost did not seep into the ground because they immediately absorbed by the roots of trees, others go deeper into groundwater , The water that flows as a run-off that will be heading to rivers and lakes. The water in rivers and lakes back will evaporate due to the heating by sunlight.
In addition to the water in rivers, lakes, ponds, and reservoirs, the water previously absorbed by the roots of trees, it will be evaporated back into the atmosphere by the leaves in the process of transpiration. In one year, on a plot of land plants to evaporate water as high as 60 cm in the area and in the woods can be up to twice (Benyamin Sapiie et al, 2012). This complex cycle indeed be a hydrological system that is run solely by nature.
If we review the recent disasters in Indonesia and Aceh province, catastrophic hydrological or hydrogeological disasters (floods, landslides, floods) are disasters are frequent and cause great harm to society. The disaster that has become an annual subscription for us who live in the tropics, should make us learn a lot. Read Review disaster in 2010 that’ve discussed last year.
In the forest, the tree serves as a giant pump continues to work to absorb rainwater that falls on the earth for 24 hours, 7 days a week without pay. In addition to functioning as natural pumps that work for free, the tree also serves to hold the lands so as not eroded by water. Roots digging a few meters into the ground make this tree is also worth saying as nails hill to hold the soil from being eroded and falling down.
When forests are initially function as a pump and natural nail is lost due to diversion of forest fungsian by some elements, it will result in a disruption of the hydrological system that had been there. When the first tree cut down, the roots of the tree will die, humus loss barrier, a layer of soil about 1-1.5 meters will eventually be eroded, trees function as a pump and a nail being lost and of course the hydrological system will be disrupted.
As I mentioned above, that in one year on a plot of land plants can evaporate the water as high as 60 cm in these areas and in forests can vaporize up to twice that or we suppose 1 meter of forest area. This calculation means that if 1 m 2 of forest eliminated, in one year there will be 1 m 3 (1000 liters) of water to flow freely because it is not evaporated by trees.
If the 55,000 hectares of forest would be eliminated or transferred functioned then there will be more or less 550 million meters cubic (m 3 ) or 550 billion liters of water to flow freely because it is not absorbed by the roots and evaporated by the leaves perpohonan. 550 billion liters of water is not a small amount, who will be the victims of 550 billion liters of water we will see in the future, even though all of us do not mengingikan it happens.
Other events that will occur due to disruption of the hydrological system is the erosion of land along the slopes of which are carried into the river, causing sedimentation of rivers that cause pedangkalan river. When the shallow river and rain intensity increased, the water will overflow and flood disaster happened. Besides compounded by sedimentation of rivers, the amount of water that is above the surface is caused by loss of function of the tree as a natural pump.
Land erosion along the slopes can cause landslides. This disaster occurred because the land along the slopes already saturated with rain water holding capacity between the grains so that the ground is reduced and the weight of the soil is also increasing. When the slope is no longer able to support the weight of soil mixed with water and it caused landslides. Seadainya along the slopes there are trees, of rain water into the slope will be absorbed by the roots of trees and tree roots that stake into the ground will help stabilize the slope. The signs of impending landslides can be read on article 9 pins Avalanche Prone Areas .
When landslides occur in a watershed with the river flow in the form of narrow valleys, then the landslide that occurred in the upstream can cause the formation of a natural dam. This natural dam will collect rainwater so that the formation of a natural lake in the upstream. when a natural dam result of avalanches in the left-right slope eroded slowly by rainwater or water overflowing a natural lake then over time the dam would break and get off the water being stored simultaneously and sweep everything in front of him (Floods) , This flash flood phenomenon I said in writing Understand Flash Flood.
Each policy and our attitude to nature, will reflect if we include his servants are learning from each incident and disaster or including the losers and do not want to understand the hydrological system that exists in nature. Some natural disasters are inevitable, but there are disasters that can dicegahkan and can overcome such a disaster hydrological or hydrogeological I described above.