Volcano erupt as a result of magma in the earth were pushed out by a high-pressure gas or due to the movement of tectonic plates, pile the pressure and the hot liquid magma. Earthquake kit the explosion brought ash and rock that burst with a bang, while the lava can flood the surrounding area. Volcano could cause casualties and huge property in the area radius of thousands of kilometers and could even affect the climate on earth is round, as happened at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines and Mount Krakatau in Banten Province, Indonesia. Results of volcanic eruptions include:
- Volcanic gases are gases emitted when a volcanic eruption. Gases released include Carbon Monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen (N2) which is harmful to humans.
- Lava is a very high temperature magma fluid that flows to the surface through volcanic crater. Lava dilute able to flow away from the source following the river or the valley, while viscous lava flows not far from the source.
- Lahar is also a threat to people living in the slope of the volcano. Lahar is a flash flood on the slopes which consists of a mixture of volcanic material sized lump of clay till. Lava can be either hot or cold lava lava. Hot lava from the eruption of the volcano which has a crater lake, where the water of the lake gets hot and then mixed with the material out of the mouth of the eruption and the mountain. Cold or raining lava lava eruptions occur due to material mixing with rain water around the mountain and then make mud viscous and flows from the mountainside. This sludge can be hot or cold.
- Hot cloud is the result of volcanic eruptions of the most dangerous karenatidak no way to escape the heat clouds except to evacuate before the volcano erupted. Hot clouds can be a stream of hot clouds, blowing hot clouds and pyroclastic fallout. Hot clouds of material flow is a major eruption cloud hot, flowing turundan finally settles in and around the river and valley. Blowing hot cloud is a cloud of small eruptions hot material, disseminated by wind with a speed up to 90 km per hour. Dropping hot cloud is a cloud of hot material large and small eruption that was brought up by the great strength of the eruption. Large-sized material will fall around the peak, while the fine would fall in the tens, hundreds and even thousands of kilometers from the summit because of the influence of wind gusts. Hot clouds can cause severe burns to exposed body parts like the head, arm, neck or leg, and also cause shortness of breath until it can not breathe. This is commonly called “wedhus trash”.
- Volcanic ash eruption is a very delicate material. Due to the impact of wind gusts could be felt hundreds of kilometers away.
While the impact to the surrounding community, among others:
- respiratory problems
- difficulty vision
- Pollution of water sources clean
- electrical storm
- Interruption of work machinery and motor vehicles
- damage to the roof
- Damage to fields and the environment
- Damage to infrastructure such as roads and airports
To avoid fatalities from volcanic eruptions is necessary preparedness measures in the face of volcanic eruptions. Action should be taken divided into 3 main action; preparatory actions, the actions during an eruption, eruption action.
A. Preparatory Actions before the eruption of the volcano
Some of the preparations to be made in the face of volcanic eruptions, among others:
- Recognizing the signs of disaster, volcanic character and ancaman- threat;
- Make a map of threats, recognize the threat area, a safe area;
- Establishing early warning systems;
- Develop community radio to disseminate information about the status of the volcano;
- Observing and understanding the volcano Prone Area Map issued by the competent authority;
- Disaster response planning;
- Preparing paths and refugee camps are ready with the basic necessities (water, latrines, food, first aid) if necessary;
- Preparing basic needs and important documents;
- Monitor information provided by the volcano observation post (coordinated by the Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation). Volcano observation post usually communicate the development status of the volcano via radio communication.
B. Measures eruption of volcano
Which should be done in case of volcanic eruptions, among others:
- Avoid areas prone to disasters such as mountain slopes, canyons, dry river flow and lava flow area;
- Avoid the outdoors, protect yourself from the ashes of the eruption;
- Sign Emergency protected space;
- Prepare yourself for the possibility of aftershocks;
- Wear clothing that can protect the body, such as long-sleeved shirts, long pants, hats and other;
- Protecting the eyes from dust, if any use eye protection such as goggles or anything that could prevent the entry of dust into the eyes;
- Do not wear contact lenses;
- Wear a mask or cloth to cover the mouth and nose;
- When downs of volcanic ash try to cover her face with both hands.
C. Measures volcanic eruption
Which should be done after the occurrence of volcanic eruptions, among others:
- Stay away from areas affected by ash
- Clean the roof of the ash heap because of the weight can damage or tear down the roof of the building
- Avoid driving in areas affected by ash falls because it could damage the engine, brakes, gearbox and ignition.
The action is also poised expected no casualties again as happened in Mount Merapi . Remember to always pray to Allah SWT. Because of Him we seek and trust. Hopefully useful